Treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes

Disclosed are methods and cells useful for the improvement of insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Although it is known that various types of stem cells are useful for the stimulation of insulin production, the concept of using stem cells to increase responsiveness to insulin has not been previously disclosed. The invention teaches that various adult stem cell populations, their supernatants, or various derivatives thereof, are useful for augmenting insulin receptor expression and/or downstream function of signal transduction mechanisms that are associated with insulin resistance. A further embodiment of the invention is that specific types of stem cells can trigger anti-inflammatory responses which in turn increase insulin sensitivity.