Cell Immunol. 2010;264(1):7-17. Epub 2010 Apr 8.
Ichim TE, Harman RJ, Min WP, Minev B, Solano F, Rodriguez JP, Alexandrescu DT, DeNecochea-Campion R, Hu X, Marleau AM, Riordan NH.
Since the days of Medawar, the goal of therapeutic tolerogenesis has been a “Holy Grail” for immunologists. While knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process has been increasing at an exponential rate, clinical progress has been minimal. To provide a mechanistic background of tolerogenesis, we overview common processes in the naturally occurring examples of: pregnancy, cancer, oral tolerance and anterior chamber associated immune deviation. The case is made that an easily accessible byproduct of plastic surgery, the adipose stromal vascular fraction, contains elements directly capable of promoting tolerogenesis such as T regulatory cells and inhibitory macrophages. The high content of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells from this source provides the possibility of trophic/regenerative potential, which would augment tolerogenic processes by decreasing ongoing inflammation. We discuss the application of this autologous cell source in the context of rheumatoid arthritis, concluding with some practical examples of its applications.